Crypto Land Fund GmbH became the beneficiary of Guinea Gold Trust on June 01, 2018. Since June 15, 2018 direct investment in the crypto currency will be ceased and the cases have been canceled. Investors, who bought cases before June 15, 2018 will receive profit in accordance with existing rules till the cases terms expiry. New investors will be able to buy Guinea Gold Trust Units and invest them in the projects below:

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According to many insiders analysts, the Crypto Land Fund project will already take the first place by the end of 2018, as the most perspective and thoughtful one. And already in 2019 will be no equal projects to it.

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Tokens in General and in Cryptocurrency

The concept of the term token in general: Generally speaking, the term “token” describes something that is a stand-in for something else.

The concept of a token and currency/value/money tokens: A currency token (or value token or money token) is representative of an amount of a currency (or more generally value or money), be it a dollar bill in digital or paper form, which represents $1, or a Bitcoin which represents 1BTC worth of value. Thus, both dollars and cryptocurrencies are currency tokens / value tokens / token money in this sense (they represent value and can be used as currency / money; but aren’t themselves inherently of value beyond their exchange value).

The concept of utility tokens: Not every token needs to be a stand-in for currency/value/money. Tokens can also be used in other ways. For example, Filecoin‘s tokens provide users with access to a decentralized cloud storage platform (in this respect some tokens work as coupons or tickets for x amount of a certain good or service). Being a currency is a utility, but in theory not every utility has to revolve around trade and value.

Tokens in computer security: In terms of computer security, a “token” is a type of encrypted data where an algorithmically generated string of data acts as a stand-in for the original data. This avoids having to send even an encrypted version of real data across the internet. The concept being that the token relates back to real data, it doesn’t contain real data. Many digital payment systems and other types of digital systems use this type of token, including Apple Pay, Square, Credit Card companies, and cryptocurrencies.

ERC-20 Tokens (and other such tokens): “Token” has another meaning in cryptocurrency specifically. People often also use the term “token” to describe altcoins (cryptocurrency alternatives to Bitcoin) that exist on another coin’s platform instead of existing on their own platform. Ethereum and NEO have tokens of this type, as do other platforms. Most commonly then, here using the most popular of these platforms Ethereum as an example, “token” would refer to any ERC-20 tokens built on the Ethereum platform that aren’t the native token Ether (or any NEO-based tokens that aren’t NEO, etc).

Again, in cryptocurrency, the term “token” general refers to all these things at once… and does so somewhat loosely.

NOTE: One-way cryptographic hash functions are used to create tokens. A hash function takes any amount of data and then creates an encrypted fixed length string of data. In general, cryptocurrency uses cryptographic hash functions for many things, including the creation of tokens.

Tokens in Cryptocurrency in Terms of Encryption

In cryptocurrency, in terms of encryption, a “token” or “cryptocurrency token” is tokenized data relating to transactions that can be sent across the internet and stored (for example on a blockchain) without jeopardizing sensitive data.

The idea being that each token is unique and corresponds to important data used to create a transaction (like a private key) but doesn’t contain that data specifically (so it can be shared publicly without jeopardizing the information). It is “a hash of the transaction” (and thus is a unique code that relates back to a specific transaction without containing sensitive information about it).

This allows people to confirm ownership of Bitcoin on the public ledger (aka the blockchain; which is public record), without sharing sensitive information.

The result is that the Blockchain is full of tokens of this type sitting next to public transaction data. A token (of the encrypted type) identifies the transaction and is created by the sender automatically, and the rest of the transaction data is recorded along with it.

In cryptocurrency, the “token” people are generally referring to when they say “token,” is one described above PLUS the concept of a currency token / value token.

In a way the term is being used loosely, as people aren’t saying “oh look, I own a TXID.” They mean, I own the rights to the Bitcoin as denoted on the ledger (as confirmed by my knowledge of the private keys which provided the signature which created the TXID, which relate back to the wallet address, which relates back to transactions on the blockchain).

TIP: The TXID token isn’t the only token used in cryptocurrency. Each block contains a timestamp token for example. Meanwhile, a Bitcoin address can be described as “a token.” Bitcoin is encrypted six ways from Sunday, lots of hashes are created, some hashes are also well described as tokens, and then on top of that Bitcoin is a token of value. Lots of token going on, so people tend to refer to cryptocurrencies as tokens (thereby sort of giving the term an additional meaning in general in cryptocurrency).

TIP: As you can see above, when a transaction is sent some information is encrypted and other information isn’t. A token is sent along with public addresses and amounts sent. The token is like a unique identifier for the transaction. To see a visual of this, see:

The Bottomline

In cryptocurrency the term token doesn’t mean one thing, it refers to many things at once. In all cases, a token is “a stand-in for something else.”

A token is an encrypted string of data that points to data without actually containing the original data. And in cryptocurrency specifically, a token is an encrypted string of data that gets created when a person creates a transaction. This string identifies the transaction and is generally stored on the blockchain… so people sometimes call cryptocurrencies “tokens.”

In this respect Ether is the native cryptocurrency token to the Ethereum blockchain and Bitcoin is the native cryptocurrency token to the Bitcoin blockchain (where a blockchain is a digital ledger of transactions, and those transactions are tokenized and added to the blockchain as tokens).

What is the difference between a cryptocurrency and a token: Essentially there is no difference between a cryptocurrency and a token on one level, as the term token generally describes any cryptocurrency. There is only a difference in term of semantics when people use the term token to refer to security tokens specifically or specifically to tokens built on another platform like ERC-20 tokens on the Ethereum platform.

A Re-Summarization of Tokenization

Here are a few other points that will help you understand everything “token” means:

  • To re-summarize the above,  a token describes cryptocurrency in general and refers to the fact that cryptos are both value tokens and use strings of data called tokens.
  • In computer security, a token is a type of encrypted data that allows only a encrypted token that leads back to the original data (but not the original data) to be sent and stored, cryptocurrency tokens are simply tokens that represent transactions to be recorded on a digital ledger called a blockchain, and sometimes the term token is used to describe tokens that exist on a blockchain that aren’t the native token (for example, ERC-2o tokens on the Ethereum network).
  • If you just sent unencrypted data across the internet it would not be secure. So instead of doing that, information is encrypted. One method of encryption is “tokenization.” A tokenized string of data can then be sent and stored securely. Credit card companies tokenize data, email tokenizes data, Square, Apple, Google, and PayPal tokenize data, almost all computer security involves the tokenization of data, cryptocurrency tokenizes data, two factor authentication uses tokens, you see tokens in URLs when you are doing online shopping, etc. In cryptocurrency specifically, much of the data sent between public addresses via wallets and stored on the blockchain is tokenized data.
  • End-to-end encryption encrypts data at the origin and then decrypts it at its destination. Tokenization encrypts data at one point and then leaves it encrypted (it is one-way encryption). Both are types of encryption, but tokenization has a specific meaning. With tokenization the data stored and sent is never stored or sent in its real form, it is always stored and sent in a tokenized (encrypted) form. With end-to-end, the real data is sent in an encrypted form, but then can be deciphered at the end point.
  • All cryptocurrencies can be referred to as cryptocurrency tokens, and the terms coin, cryptocurrency, and token can all be used interchangeably (although, see the next point). Do you own a digital asset? Then you can say you have X balance of X token.
  • Even though the last point is true, that the terms token and cryptocurrency can be used interchangeably,  a cryptocurrency is more than just a token. Firstly, a cryptocurrency is a digital ledger of transaction data (which in with most cryptocurrencies is called a blockchain). Secondly, a cryptocurrency is the encrypted transaction data (the tokenized transaction data) that gets sent between peers and added to the ledger. Third, there is more than one type of token created in the process of sending and storing cryptocurrencies.
  • In other words, there is a lot of tokenization going on in cryptocurrencies, and understanding each type of token means going through the Bitcoin and  Ethereum wikis and picking apart each aspect of how cryptocurrencies work (where you’ll find pages on token contracts, time stamp tokens, transaction tokens, and even the concept of money).

    For more information on this specific type of tokenization common to payment systems from Square, to Apple Pay, to Bitcoin see Square’s “Payment Tokenization Explained.

BOTTOMLINE: With tokenization real sensitive data is never sent or stored, only an algorithmically generated number called a token is sent and stored. Thus, in cryptocurrency private data that shouldn’t be public is never directly stored on the blockchain or sent through the internet, only tokens that correspond to the original data are sent and stored. This method of encryption is common with cryptocurrency and many payment systems like Square, Credit Card companies, and Apple Pay for example.

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